General Education

From Meditation to Making: How Designing and Creating Help Students Cope with Stress

From Meditation to Making: How Designing and Creating Help Students Cope with Stress
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Reid Henkel and Kelly L. Anderson profile
Reid Henkel and Kelly L. Anderson February 8, 2019

Two researchers from Parsons conducted a study about the effect of design and language on high school students' stress levels. Find out what they learned.

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Close your eyes, and think of the last time you felt stressed.

It’s probably not that hard to come up with an instance: You may have had a deadline looming at work, or needed a last-minute loan to pay the rent, or come home to a huge mess.

Stressors are all around you, so much so that they are often just seen as normal. For high school students, low-grade stressors they encounter every day may seem to compound: There are the academic and social pressures of school, anxieties about leaving home for college (or about not being able to afford a college education), struggles to gain independence, possible family issues, hormonal changes, and — of course — test upon test.

A lot of rhetoric around stress focuses on stress management. Meditation is a way to stay calm. Yoga is a way to relax. Mindfulness is a way reduce stress. For many people, these ways of dealing with stress do help. Yet for all of the potential benefits that these coping mechanisms offer, they are generally surface-level interventions. They are treatments meant to address the symptoms of stress, rarely delving into the why behind it — that job is reserved for mental health professionals.

You cannot get rid of low-grade chronic stress; but you can learn to thrive in its midst. What happens when prescribed relievers like meditation and yoga don’t work? What happens when simply redirecting the manifestations of stress is just not enough? How can people find their own ways to thrive amid the stress?

Designing Objects to Create a Language for Stress

To flourish in the face of chronic stress, you first need to understand the sources of that stress. This is where we believe that design has a complementary role to play. What design does uniquely well is visually represent complex issues, such as stress. Design allows the invisible to become tangible through visualization and creation.

While yoga and meditation utilize, among other things, intense focus on the body and breath to release stress in the moment, we have seen that design and the act of making can facilitate understanding about the root causes of stress. Design can help students change the way they see their stress, a feat that effectively changes the stress that they see. This premise became the backbone of our graduate thesis at Parsons.

If your stress were an object, what would it look like? Would it fit in your palm or fill the room? What materials would it be made out of?

These are some of the prompts that we used to engage high school students in the initial research phase of our thesis project, This Is Water. After thinking about those questions, the students used arts and crafts materials to build a representation of their stress, however they saw fit. Some of them made characters; some created metaphors; and others made abstract representations of their stress. We used these creations to facilitate a group discussion about the stress in their lives and how they deal with it. Many of our conversations focused on the stressors themselves: homework, anticipation of a grade, sibling troubles.

After meeting with more than 30 students in three different schools, we noticed a trend that would dramatically shape the focus we gave our thesis. Namely, there is no language around stress. There is a language for the stressors themselves (e.g., heartbreak). There is a language for the physical manifestations of stress on the body (e.g., crying, insomnia). For some students who seek professional help, there is even the language of counseling. But there is no language that allows people to discuss the stress itself.

Creating the Language to Talk About Stress

From our initial research, we wanted to build on our intuition that the short exercises we ran had begun to give the students a means to talk about their stress, both verbally and through the materials used. We partnered with a local school, The Urban Assembly School of Emergency Management (UASEM), where we worked with a group of seven 10th-grade students once a week for almost three months. We had the students, the time, the buy-in from the administration, and the freedom to experiment with 45-minute lessons every week for 10 weeks. Every week’s activity used the process of making in a different way and was specifically scaffolded to build upon the prior lessons. We were aiming to give a material language to the internal noise of everyday stresses among high school students.

# Weeks 1–3: Abstracting Stress

Stress is a very personal issue, so the first couple of weeks focused on the self. Because of society’s complex norms when it comes to communicating about stress, which either encourage us to celebrate it or, if not, brush it under the rug, students were introduced to the idea of a new language for stress.

To start the conversation, we created a dimension to measure how students react to stress called DSFT, which stands for doing, saying, feeling, and thinking. Using a visual string map, students mapped how the expressed themselves through each of these dimensions, or actions, on a regular basis. For instance, if a student is particularly extroverted and likes having conversations with others, her saying dimension would be considered “loud” and be symbolized by a jagged line. For a student who is more shy and doesn’t enjoy speaking to others as much, her saying dimension would be mapped as “quiet,” or with a straight line. Then, we asked students to consider how stress affected the way they expressed themselves across these dimensions. For example, a student who is usually may be “loud” on the saying spectrum may react to stress be talking less with others. This means that that students would map her saying dimension as “quiet” on a particularly stressful week.

In addition, students literally saw their stress in new ways by creating physical representations of it with arts-and-crafts materials. These first weeks served as an introduction to both a verbal and material language for the students’ stress that would be used throughout the 10 weeks.

# Week 4–6: The Systems of Stress

In the middle weeks, students explored stress as more than just a personal issue. They identified how stress from different events can build upon itself throughout a day, a week, or even longer. Through a role-playing game and the creation of a visual map, students experienced and saw how this pent up stress can be the energy that makes people lash out on those closest to them. Bottled up stress can happen for different reasons, and when it explodes, it can be transferred from one individual to another.

# Weeks 7–10: Changing the Stress We See

The final weeks brought the abstract concepts of the prior activities into a more concrete form. During these weeks, we asked students to think about how they may apply the concepts they learned in the preceding sessions to their everyday lives. Students shared and discussed real-world examples from their own lives and analyzed their stresses as a series of events — and their reactions to those events. They saw that by changing their own reactions, they had the ability to change the stresses associated with those events.

Over the course of the semester, we got to know the students with whom we worked fairly well. Constantly switching roles from designers to facilitators to researchers, we were always aware of any small changes in the students throughout the 10 weeks. Much of our evidence is anecdotal, but we could see subtle changes in the way that the students perceived their own stress. As one student expressed to us:

Over the last few weeks, I realized I do things a little more irrationally than I think I do. It’s not like I do it here [at school]. It’s more like I get frustrated when I go home. Your parents nag you all the time. They tell you something, then you yell at them, and it gets even bigger.

Learning From This Research

We created a 10-week program that used both material and verbal language to help seven students articulate their levels and scales of stress. Rather than generalizing everything as “stress,” they were able to start illustrating the root causes of the internal noise they were experiencing. It’s not homework that is stressful; it’s the fear of failure that makes the hands sweaty and the heart race. This awareness, in turn, helped students shift their perspectives from the superficial subjects of stress to the deeper anxieties that were fueling it. Among these are recurring themes that make themselves apparent in school, at home, and in personal relationships.

Ultimately, though, we don’t know what “worked.” We know from our early research that some schools spend as little as one hour during a “Health Day” explicitly talking about stress, whereas our students were exposed to the topic for a sustained period of time. We also know, from our students’ ability to articulate how they saw stress and their self-reported answers to our DSFT Questionnaire, that they showed a general trend towards increased awareness of the stress in their everyday lives. But was it the specific activities we did? Our approach and pedagogy to group facilitation?The fact that we were not their teachers? Or simply that we gave them an avenue to express themselves in a safe environment?

Thinking beyond the seven students with whom we had the privilege of working, we are starting to explore the implications our project may have for the lives of young people at school and at home. There are very few places in students’ lives that have as much potential to shape their mindsets than the schools they attend every day. How can schools start to deconstruct the culture surrounding stress? Schools already have classes that teach life skills and can act as a playground for teachers and administrators to engage students creatively on issues surrounding stress. While these classes can be used as forums to talk explicitly about students’ stress, integrating discussions about stress into other academic subjects can help in creating a culture that embraces discussions of feelings in general.

Applications Beyond Design

Having open discussions about stress, its root causes, and its effects can provide considerable relief for students in their personal and academic lives. But this practice can also help students sharpen their analytical skills and broaden their perspectives. Imagine what conversations would occur if students were thinking about how stress affected what Romeo and Juliet were doing and saying. Or if students considered how the stress George Washington confronter affected how he was feeling and thinking.Understanding how internal noise can affect anyone — from literary characters to historical figures — can also help us better comprehend how it affects each of us personally.

Learn more from Reid Henkel and Kelly Anderson and other Noodle Experts.