Websites and web apps consist of many elements, but users typically only interact with one piece of any site. That piece is called the front end (because it's user-facing), and it consists of the visual and interactive elements of an app or online destination. Designers create the look and feel of a site, back-end developers make it work, and front-end developers serve as a link between the user interface and the site functionality.
There's no prescribed pathway to become a front-end developer. Academic success and certification trainings can help, but they aren't the only ways to succeed in this field.
In this article, we'll discuss the other ways front-end developers can get ahead. We'll also cover:
Front-end developers—once called client-side developers—turn web designs into fully functional websites using markup languages, scripts, and frameworks. While back-end developers program the behind-the-scenes elements of websites (like databases and content management systems), front-end developers code the structure, navigation, buttons, inputs, responsiveness, and user-facing functionality of a site. As a front-end developer, you will be responsible for coding everything that site visitors and users see and interact with.
An outstanding front-end developer has a knack for making websites and web apps that people love to use. As you learn about what it takes to become a front-end developer, you'll discover that it's about more than merely building fast, efficient, responsive, and bug-free sites.
Many people don't think of front-end developers as creatives, but there are many ways to make sites search-friendly, many ways to program a button or form, and many things you can do to enhance a site's UX without straying from the design.
When you become a front-end developer, your responsibilities will include:
Other skills are just as essential:
To get a more thorough idea of what a front-end developer needs to succeed, check out job listings on sites like Indeed and Glassdoor. You'll quickly discover that no two front-end developer jobs are alike. A surprising number of them ask that applicants have:
Browsing job listings is the best way to determine what skills you'll need to succeed as a front-end developer.
Most job listings for front-end developers require an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree in computer science or a comparable discipline. Some employers prefer to hire developers with master's degrees, though few require job seekers to have advanced degrees.
Employers are often more interested in relevant work experience; it's not entirely unusual for developers to start working without a degree. Even so, having a bachelor's degree on your résumé can never hurt. If your goal is to work at a large corporation or for the government—or to enter management—you will eventually need to earn your degree.
So, which degree? The debate rages on. Peruse any programming forum and you'll find people who recommend that aspiring front-end developers get a computer information systems degree instead of a computer science degree—and many others arguing the opposite just as vehemently.
What very few suggest is getting a degree in software engineering or computer programming. That's because there are so many ways to learn the technical skills you need as a front-end developer for less than the cost of the degree, and in less time (more on this below).
The best degree for aspiring front-end developers is probably the Bachelor of Computer Information Systems. It's a versatile degree that's often offered by business schools at universities (of the best BS in CIS can be found at the Florida Institute of Technology College of Engineering and Computing). Students usually take business classes in addition to technical courses (which is great for entrepreneurially-minded programmers).
Look for programs that include classes in front-end and back-end development, data science, database design and administration, web design, project management, and hands-on learning experiences. You may also be able to take web development classes and/or graphic design as part of a minor.
Your education won't end when you earn your bachelor's degree, however. Technology is evolving faster than ever, and to succeed as a developer, you will need to evolve with it. Throughout your career, you may need to learn new object-oriented programming languages, take courses to prepare and test for new certifications, complete certificate programs, and attend conferences.
It is possible to learn almost all the technical skills you need to become a front-end developer from online resources.
The job requires proficiency in:
After you've mastered the technical skills front-end developers need, it's essential to work on a few projects to create your professional portfolio. Some courses help students build a portfolio, but many do not. You can create your own by building websites, working on UI elements, or creating a web app.
Tech experts predict that there will be one million more job openings for programmers than qualified programmers in the United States by 2020. Given that, the career outlook for front-end developers is excellent.
While the US Bureau of Labor Statistics doesn't distinguish between front-end developers and other types of web developers, it has predicted that all web developers can expect 13 percent job growth between now and 2028. Again, the numbers are promising.
If you do become a front-end developer, you can expect to make over $70,000 per year, according to PayScale. You can increase your chances of earning more than that—again, according to PayScale—by learning React and Angular.
To succeed as a front-end developer, learn the basics and stay on top of changes to the tech front-end developers use. To make yourself as marketable as possible—and potentially earn more than other front-end developers—you should also learn the following:
There are pros and cons to becoming a front-end developer. The pros are compelling. As noted above, front-end developers are in demand, and chances are good that demand is going to increase in coming years. It's also a lucrative career. You could be making close to six figures with as little as three years of experience. And it's a flexible career because programmers can work from anywhere. A wide variety of companies use web developers, so you'll have a lot of options when it comes to employers.
We touched on one of the biggest potential cons above, which is that pursuing continuing education is an absolute must when you become a front-end developer. If you love to learn, it's not a con, but if you'd like to leave school behind when you leave school, this may not be the job for you. Front-end web development is an evolving field, and learning is part of the job.
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